Early chemotherapy of hypodermatosis in cattle involves the destruction of first-stage hypoderm larvae during their migration in the body by applying systemic insecticides to animals.
For early chemotherapy, chlorophos is often prescribed externally (by watering) once after the end of the flight of gadflies (in autumn), in the form of a freshly prepared 8% aqueous solution according to ADV (calculation of the concentration of aqueous solutions of the drug can be done according to a special table below).
150-200 ml of this solution (temperature not higher than 16-20 В�) is applied in thin streams on the back along the ridge of the animal using a device designed according to the principle of a garden watering can (without rubbing with brushes!). This method is used to treat cattle (young animals older than three months of age and cows), which were on pastures in the summer and were not sprayed with insecticides. Deep-boned cows, emaciated and sick animals are not treated with this method.
For the same purpose, chlorophos can be administered internally only to young animals in water 0.05 per 1 kg of weight in the form of a 5% aqueous solution according to ADV (1 ml of solution per 1 kg of weight). In the event of signs of intoxication (depression, salivation, diarrhea, etc.), a 1% solution of atropine is injected subcutaneously - 1 ml per 100 kg of animal weight. To prevent side effects in livestock after the use of systemic insecticides, animals are provided with exercise, and easily fermenting feed is excluded from the diet.
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Sometimes, to destroy the larvae of the second and third stages of subcutaneous gadflies, young cattle are treated with oily solutions of trichlormetaphos-3 (1.5%) at the rate of 80-150 ml of solution per animal. Moreover, freshly prepared aqueous solutions of insecticides are used at a temperature of 35-40В�, oil - at 25-30В�. Dose the solution with a measuring cup. During the initial treatment, the drug is applied in small portions to the back, sacrum and croup and rubbed into the skin from the withers to the root of the tail with vigorous circular movements with a hair brush for 1-2 minutes (Fig. 51). During repeated treatments, the insecticide solution is rubbed into areas of the skin with nodules (tubercles). It is desirable to process animals in open areas in splits or in rooms with good ventilation.
It must be remembered that all insecticides are toxic substances, therefore, violations of the instructive rules when using these products should not be allowed. Store them in a closed container in a non-residential dry room, inaccessible to unauthorized persons. When treating animals with insecticide solutions, it is necessary to observe personal prevention measures. during work, do not eat or smoke, prevent drugs from getting on the mucous membranes, skin of the hands and face. Prepare solutions and process livestock in dressing gowns, rubber gloves and gauze bandages.
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Animals affected by larvae of the second and third stages (with nodules) are subject to periodic (after 30-35 days) external treatments with insecticides. For this (more often in winter and spring), aqueous solutions of chlorophos (2% or 1% with the addition of 0.5% OP-7 emulsifier) are rubbed with brushes in doses of 200-350 ml of the solution, depending on the age of the animal and hair density. As a result of the comprehensive implementation of anti-fallow measures using new methods of struggle, veterinary workers of Ukraine completely healed cattle from hypodermatosis in Kherson, Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporozhye, Kirovohrad and other regions.
Females of the subcutaneous gadfly lay from 500 to 800 eggs on the hairline of the limbs, abdominal wall, plowed fields and udders of cattle. After 3-7 days, the larvae of the first stage hatched from the eggs pierce the skin and enter the subcutaneous tissue. Within 7-9 months, the larvae make a difficult path of migration through the body of the animal, moreover, the larvae of the line live in the spinal canal, after which they move towards the back. During this period, they turn into second-stage larvae. In the subcutaneous tissue of the back and loins of the animal, the larvae grow rapidly, molt a second time, form tubercles, and then fistulas, through which the larvae of the third stage crawl out and fall to the ground. Larvae of the 2-3rd stage parasitize under the skin of the back for 2-2.5 months.
On the ground, the larvae crawl under the leaves or burrow into the ground and turn into a pupa, from which the imago emerges after 20-30 days. The cycle of one generation of subcutaneous gadflies is completed within a year. Epizootology. Young cattle are most susceptible to hypodermatosis. Infection occurs only in the warm season during the summer period of insects. With a strong infection, more than 120 subcutaneous gadflies can parasitize in one animal.